In 2019, the FDA advised consumers to avoid using certain cosmetic items due to them testing positive for asbestos. These items contained talc, which itself is safe.
However, talc may pose a health risk due to possible contamination with asbestos; both talc and asbestos are natural minerals in the earth that often occur close together. Asbestos is a known cancer-forming chemical and can contaminate untested talc that manufacturers use in certain cosmetics.
Triclosan may be present in some over-the-counter cosmetics. Some manufacturers add it to reduce the risk of contamination with bacteria. Products that might contain triclosan include toothpastes, antibacterial soaps, and body washes.
According to the FDA, high levels of triclosan may affect thyroid hormones and contribute to antibiotic resistance. Research is also currently looking into the long-term effects of triclosan on the development of skin cancer.
Any product containing these ingredients is illegal in the U.S., as they come under the FDA’s list of illegal color additives.
Mercury and thimerosal
Thimerosal is a preservative that can appear in cosmetics and contains mercury.
Phthalates can unbalance hormones, particularly those that work alongside estrogen, such as testosterone. According to a breast cancer charity, phthalates may have a link with breast cancer. This is because certain changes in estrogen levels can cause breast cancer to develop.
Manufacturers use parabens as preservatives in many cosmetics. Parabens may appear on cosmetic labels as the following:
Although parabens will only act as a weak form of estrogen, it could still be enough to cause breast cancer cells to grow. This is because an imbalance of estrogen can sometimes trigger a certain type of breast cancer called hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.
Breast tissue and breast cancers can contain paraben, though this is not proof that they are linked with cancer. It could simply indicate their wide usage. Further research will help determine whether or not there is a definite link.
Formaldehyde can cause allergic reactions, as well as irritation to the eyes and respiratory system. Some studies in laboratory animals have also linked the chemical with cancer.
According to the American Cancer Society, these cosmetics “may raise the concentration of formaldehyde in the air inside the room for a short time, but the levels reached are far below what is considered to be hazardous.”
They also suggest that professional hair smoothing treatments that use keratin can raise the indoor concentration of formaldehyde to potentially hazardous levels.
Carbon black is present in mascaras, eye liners, and lipsticks, as it gives these products their coloring. The Environmental Working Group (EWG) link this chemical with cancer, and research has reported that carbon black is “possibly carcinogenic to humans.”
Scientists usually base these studies on industrial-level exposure in factories or laboratory animals. More research is needed to determine the safety of small amounts of carbon black in cosmetics.
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
According to the EWG, there are more than 4,000 chemicals classed as PFAS that may pose the following risks:
harming a developing fetusincreasing a person’s risk of canceraffecting the immune systemaffecting hormone balanceBenzophenone-type ultraviolet filters